Could you imagine what life would be like if we didn’t test things? What if we merely took for granted the efficacy of new medicines and there was no method for testing and approving them? What if we had no way of knowing the efficacy or side effects of products and our consumer markets (including the pharmaceutical industry) and were actually trial-and-error testing grounds? There would never be a dull moment, but there would never be a peace of mind either.

Thankfully, we have science and mathematics and means for testing our hypotheses about life and the sciences. One of those methods is the ANOVA test. In this article, we’ll discuss ANOVA and how various industries use it.

### What is an ANOVA test?

Many cases require the comparison of two different statistical groups. Comparing two samples enables us to find similarities, differences, patterns, and anomalies in data. ANOVA is one of the best testing methods for finding variance in two or more samples. Indeed, it’s been one of the premier testing methods since 1918 when Ronald Fisher invented it.

An analysis of variance test has several components. There is at least one dependent variable, one independent variable, and two groups (or samples) and their means. There’s also a hypothesis, and it can be either a null hypothesis or an alternative hypothesis. A null hypothesis posits that there’s no variance of statistical significance in two or more group means. An alternative hypothesis asserts that there is a significant difference in the different sample means.

The purpose of the ANOVA test is to find differences in group means of two or more statistical groups. If there is a difference in the means of the different groups’ dependent variables, ANOVA can measure the degree of variance between the two samples. The level of variance is called the F-statistic.

### What are the different types of ANOVA tests?

There are two main types of ANOVA tests, and they’re ideal for different situations. The first is called the one-way ANOVA test, and the other one is the factorial ANOVA test.

The one-way test is best for when there are different levels of only one independent variable undergoing testing. The factorial test is great for testing larger sample sizes with more than two independent variables. The two-way or factorial ANOVA version of the test is good for testing the interaction effect. The interaction effect occurs when two or more independent variables simultaneously act on a dependent variable, causing a joint impact noticeably greater (or lesser) than the sum of its parts.

### What is a real-world use case for ANOVA?

There are many real-world use cases for ANOVA testing, and they provide data analysis in critical situations. One of the common use cases for the ANOVA statistical method is testing the efficacy of new drugs. Pharmaceutical companies often use ANOVA to test variances in a control group and a placebo group. The results show them whether or not the drug is working and to what degree.

ANOVA is one of the best statistical tests, which is why it’s been in use for over a hundred years. It’s a great method for testing hypotheses, the impact of different factors, and the significance level of statistical variance. Moreover, unlike the T-test, ANOVA enables you to test the variance in more than two mean groups. It’s a statistical method you should acquaint yourself with if you’re planning on going into computer science or data analysis.

ANOVA is used in the data, medical, and social sciences, making it one of the most popular statistical methods. As you can see, ANOVA is much more than a cool-sounding acronym.